Discuss the classification and mode of occurrence of igneous rocks. Name date block the rock cycle the rock cycle is a group of changes. Although geologists would do a chemical analysis before identifying andesite in a published paper, in the field they readily call a gray or mediumred extrusive igneous rock andesite. Common types of igneous rock such as granite, basalt. Lecture notes 3 igneous rocks glendale community college. The protolith may be sedimentary rock, igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock. Closer to the source the grains will tend to be larger and more angular chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the precipitation of minerals from solution, e.
Igneous rock sedimentary rock metamorphic rock c h a n g i n g t e mperatu r e a n d p r e s u r e c h a n g i n g t e m p e r a t u r e a n d i p r e s s u r e e o i o n, t d e p o s i t i o n, a n d c e m e n t a t i o n m e. Thomas 1958 investigated the igneous rocks and mineralization of the indian springs quadrangle in the simpson mountains and reported rock types and alteration processes similar to those observed in the stansbury mountain area. As we know already, igneous rocks form when magma cools and hardens, this can happen underground or on the surface. Types of rocks and their properties pdf download geography the earths crust is composed of rocks. These sheets require tracing, some matching, and some. The rocks solidify from a mass of molten rock, such as when a lava flow cools and hardens. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Igneous rocks aphanitic andor vesicular pegmatitic or phaneritic glassy pyroclastic mostly feldspar minerals mostly mafic minerals mostly k spar mostly plagioclase. See files on canvas site for this course for the pdf file. Granite and basalt are two common and familiar igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are formed from melted rock that has cooled and solidified. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Most of the earths oceanic crust is made of igneous rock.
Types of igneous rocks scientists have divided igneous rocks into two broad categories based on where the molten rock solidified. There are many types of rocks and geologists have classified them based on the process by which they are formed. Examples of intrusive igneous rocks are diorite, gabbro, granite, pegmatite, and peridotite. The lava forms rocks with tiny crystals, such as basalt. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock. The protolith is subjected to heat greater than 150 degrees celsius andor extreme pressure causing profound physical andor chemical change. The exact location of where the rock forms, determines what type of igneous rock it is. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Introduce the activity to students with a discussion. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Each county map has been scaled to fit on lettersize paper. Magmas and igneous rocks magma and igneous rocks igneous rocks are formed by crystallization from a liquid, or magma. Lecture notes petrology earth, atmospheric, and planetary. Basalt forms the metamorphic rock granulite when subjected to extreme heat and pressure over time metamorphism.
Igneous rock derived from the latin word ignis meaning fire, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. This igneous rock is a vein of dolerite and three metres wide which pushed its way to the surface through the sedimentary rock in a molten state and then hardened. There are over 700 different types of igneous rocks. Describe how metamorphic rocks are produced by the action of heat, pressure, and fluids on preexisting parent rocks over the course of time. Intrusive rocks are characterized by large crystal sizes, i. Petrology and petrography of the igneous rocks of the. Igneous rocks are formed when magma, molten rock from beneath the earths crust, rises, cools and solidifies. C1 rocks and magmas a rock is defined as a consolidated mixture of minerals.
Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses. These rocks include andesite, basalt, dacite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria, and tuff. The rock type data were extracted from map 63 and are represented by numbers and colors on top of a shadedrelief base map. Igneous rocks and minerals that are mineral resources. Based on these studies, geologists have classified rocks into three major types by the way the rocks form. Apr 16, 2014 general characteristics of magma igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and solidifies general characteristics of magma parent material of igneous rocks forms from partial melting of rocks magma at surface is called lava rocks formed from lava extrusive, or volcanic rocks rocks formed from magma at depth intrusive, or plutonic rocks the. Occurrence, texture, and classification of igneous rocks. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rocks q files the online library of knowledge. Elements combine chemically to form minerals how does this fit into our understanding of what rocks are. The word igneous is derived from a latin term that means from fire.
Rocks and minerals scavenger hunt aboriginal access to. Igneous rock the word igneous means of fire or born of fire. Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, wherever they cool quickly to make little crystals. Hence the prerequisite for the formation of igneous rocks is the melting of rocks. Lava is molten rock that has reached the surface of the earth. Shrivastava and others published igneous rocks find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Extrusive rocks there are two types of igneous rocks. When magma in its upward movement cools and turns into solid. If you walk around a volcano, you will find those extrusive types.
Type of deposit how these form commodities mined bulk igneous rock magma cooling. For example, slate and marble are building materials, garnets are used as gemstones. Igneous rocks occur in a wide range of geological settings. Rocks and minerals help scientists decipher things about past periods on our earth and other planets. Two types of igneous rocks extrusive, or volcanic rocks. Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification and cooling of magma in volcanic areas, while. The list of counties below link to pdf files of corresponding county rocktype maps. The following is a list of rock types recognized by geologists. A mixture of minerals implies the presence of more than one mineral grain, but not necessarily more than one type of mineral. Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. There are three different types of rocks igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Granite rock what types of igneous rocks are there. Over time, wind, rain, and other factors wear down rocks on earths surface.
Igneous rocks that cooled on the surface are termed extrusive. Rocks and minerals unit this is a unit i designed for my primarily preschooler, but my older two kids 2nd, 4th grades will join in as well. Types of igneous rock learn with flashcards, games, and more for free. Magma is molten rock, but is not just liquid also contains bits of. Igneous rocks can also form on the earths surface when lava escapes from a volcano and solidifies quickly. Igneous they form from the cooling of magma deep inside the earth. They are formed at or beneath the earths surface by the cooling of liquid rock such as magma, or lava. Three major types of rock volcanic activity produces igneous rock.
Recognize the different types of metamorphism, the processes. Igneous rocks qfiles the online library of knowledge. Construction aggregate university of colorado boulder. Under the surface of the earth the magna is kept liquid by high temperature and high pressure. Types of rocks and their properties pdf download geography. About 95 percent of the earths crust consists of igneous rock and metamorphosed igneous rock. Major highways and municipalities aid with location. Of general academic interest and of some use in correlation is. Structures developed in igneous rocks are of two types intrusive which form by the crystallization of magma at a depth within the earth. The three groups in which rocks are classified are. Pdf types and physical properties of igneous rocks of popov. Igneous rock that was once underground can become exposed on earths surface.
Extrusive rocks are formed as a result of volcanic activities. Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals. Plate tectonic mechanisms move rocks throughout the crust. Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks the building blocks of landforms rocks we have now seen the relationship between elements and minerals. However, they were once melted and have since cooled down. Types of igneous rocks the type of igneous rock that forms is determined by magma composition, the environment in which the lava or magma cools and crystallizes, and the cooling rate. Igneous rocks represent one of three major rock types, which include sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Albiterich plagioclase from a pegmatite from lofoten, north norway. Igneous rocks result from the final solidification of magma at the surface or at variable depths within the earth, as well as from the eventual consolidation of fragmented debris. Igneous rocks get their name from the latin word ignis, meaning fire. These rocks embody andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria, and tuff. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Teacher guide to oklahoma landforms and oklahoma rocks.
Pdf file igneous rocks of convergent margins pdf file igneous rocks of the continental lithosphere pdf file pyroclastic rocks. On prince edward island, you will find six basic rock types. Molten rock is called magma if it occurs within the lithosphere and becomes lava. Mineral resources of igneous and metamorphic origin. The two major factors t hat influence the creation of igneous rocks are the original rock that was melted and the cooling history of the molten rocks. Igneous these rocks are made when magma melted rock below the earths surface or lava the m elted rock that flows from volcanoes above the surface cools and hardens. Sometimes the magma cools inside the earth, and other times it erupts onto the surface from volcanoes in this case, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock cools and becomes solid. A magma consists mostly of liquid rock matter, but may contain crystals of various minerals, and may contain a gas phase that may be dissolved in the liquid or may be present as a separate gas phase. Igneous rock is categorized by how it actually formed. There is no agreed number of specific types of rocks. Igneous rocks pictures of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The rock cycle helps us understand what conditions helped formed those rocks, which can tell us a lot about the history of a region. Igneous rocks can be divided into four categories based on their chemical composition.
Igneous rocks are one of the three main rock types igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic. Knowledge of metamorphic processes and rocks is valuable, because metamorphic minerals and rocks have economic value. Intrusive igneous rocks crystallize below earths surface, and the slow cooling that occurs there allows large crystals to form. Media in category igneous rocks the following 107 files are in this category, out of 107 total. Common types of igneous rock such as granite, basalt, gabbro and pumice have applications in our daily lives.
Igneous rocks igneous rocks are the ones that were superheated and originally liquid. Granite is a type of igneous rock that consists of quartz gray, plagioclase feldspar white, and alkali feldspar beige, plus dark minerals such as biotite and hornblende. In general, color is a good clue to the silica content of extrusive igneous rocks, with basalt being dark and felsite being light. Any unique combination of chemical composition, mineralogy, grain size, texture, or other distinguishing characteristics can describe a rock type. They are composed of primary minerals such as quartz, feldspars and biotite, augite and hornblende. Sedimentary rocks clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the mechanical break up of other rocks and are classified based on the particle size, e. When rocks are buried deep within the earth, they melt because of the high pressure and temperature. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock magma cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive plutonic rocks or on the surface as extrusive. Igneous igneous rocks are formed when magma molten rock deep within the earth cools and hardens. Intense heat from deep within the earth is able to melt rock, turning it into magma. A study of geochemistry through the use of standardised graphs. Here we give very brief descriptions of most types of terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks, their regional distribution and classification, and examples of their geochemical trends and fingerprints.
Their density and magnetic susceptibility have been determined. When volcanic material erupts and cools and crystallizes on earths surface, it forms a type of igneous rock called extrusive rock. Not really the center, but they often start their lives below the crust and then get pumped out. Igneous rocks form through the solidification of molten or partially molten rock lava on the surface or magma underground. Physical geology in our overview of the earth, we found out that earths internal heat combined with other mechanisms causes rocks to melt in the asthenosphere and lithosphere.
They form from volcanic magma when a volcano erupts and are also referred to as volcanic rocks. The atoms and molecules of melted minerals are what make up magma. Melting, cooling and hardening turns you into an igneous rock. The word igneous is derived from the latin word ignis, meaning fire. Pictures and brief descriptions of some common igneous rock types are shown on this page. Igneous rocks are formed deep within the earth and are formed by heat. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass. Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, diorite, gabbro and andesite. Examples of this rock type include gneiss and marble.
A rock normally contains two or more types of minerals. Sills usually are fed by dikes, but these may not be exposed in the field. Magma can be forced into rocks, blown out in volcanic explosions or forced to the surface as lava. Restate how metamorphic rocks relate to the two other rock groups sedimentary and igneous. It has a high silica content and cools slowly beneath earths surface. Some cool thus quickly that they type an amorphous glass. Igneous rocks make up about 90 per cent of the rock in earths crust. Different types of rocks behave differently under different conditions. Igneous rocks are either formed as intrusive or extrusive rocks. They include two types zvolcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the surface of the earth zintrusive or plutonic igneous rocks wherein the magma crystallizes at depth in the earth. For each area describe the igneous rocks and rock cycle processes you would expect to be occurring at these areas.
Important igneous rocks involved in the weathering process are granite, basalt, gabbro diabase, syenite, andesite etc. This article talks about the different kinds of rocks. Types of metamorphism pdf file metamorphic rock textures pdf file triangular plots in metamorphic petrology pdf file metamorphic. A rock can be composed of only one type of mineral. This book is an introduction to igneous rocks, telling how they are formed, the different types, and how they are used includes bibliographical references and index what are igneous rocks. The list of counties below link to pdf files of corresponding county rock type maps. Metamorphic sedimentary igneous metamorphic sedimentary igneous. The rocktype data were extracted from map 63 and are represented by numbers and colors on top of a shadedrelief base map. Granite is used by the public as a catchall name for any lightcolored, coarsegrained igneous rock. Examples of such crystalline rocks are granite, usually lightcolored pink or gray. There are the rocks that make it to the surface extrusive and the ones that are stuck in the crust just below the surface intrusive. Igneous rocks thus occur in two ways, either as extrusive on the surface rocks or as intrusive below the surface bodies. Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the surface of the earth. Igneous rocks make up about 90 percent of the rock in earths crust.
Igneous rock is formed when magma cools and solidifies, it may do this above or below the earths surface. These igneous types have all hardened after being molten rock. Because of the heat needed to form igneous rocks, they are sometimes called rocks of fire. Rhyolite andesite basalt 1 hyolite andesite basalt 2 rhyolite andesite basalt 3 rhyolite an ite basalt 1 1 silicate minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen. Its the first thing you learn in a geology class very briefly the three types of rocks are. On the basis of mode of formation the rocks are divided into three categories. They are given this name because these rocks are formed. Igneous rocks rocks and minerals for earth science fun. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. Introduction to igneous rocks an igneous rock is any crystalline or glassy rock that forms from cooling of a magma.150 1408 910 1401 31 944 196 1542 951 377 1338 32 1130 234 149 687 19 860 444 799 448 1295 705 8 1448 1008 934 769 1251 42 145 549 764 1460 1143 1020 422 1367 934 703 785 436 794 912 700 137 509 491 31 717